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torchnet/torchnet

### torchnet / torchnet

Lua

Torch on steroids

# torchnet

torchnet is a framework for torch which provides a set of abstractions aiming at encouraging code re-use as well as encouraging modular programming.

At the moment, torchnet provides four set of important classes:

For an overview of the torchnet framework, please also refer to this paper.

## Installation

Please install torch first, following instructions on torch.ch. If torch is already installed, make sure you have an up-to-date version of argcheck, otherwise you will get weird errors at runtime.

Assuming torch is already installed, the torchnet core is only a set of lua files, so it is straightforward to install it with luarocks

luarocks install torchnet


To run the MNIST example from the paper, install the mnist package:

luarocks install mnist


cd into the installed torchnet package directory and run:

th example/mnist.lua


## Documentation

Requiring torchnet returns a local variable containing all torchnet class constructors.

local tnt = require 'torchnet'


### tnt.Dataset()

torchnet provides a variety of data containers, which can be easily plugged between each others, allowing the user to easily concat, split, batch, resample etc... datasets.

A instance dataset of a tnt.Dataset() implements two main methods:

• dataset:size() which returns the size of the dataset.
• dataset:get(idx) where idx is a number between 1 and the dataset size.

While it is easy to iterate over a dataset with a for loop, several DatasetIterator iterators are nevertheless provided, allowing the user to filter out some samples in an on-the-fly manner, or to parallelize easily data fetching.

In torchnet, a sample returned by dataset:get() is supposed to be a Lua table. Fields of the table can be arbitrary, even though many datasets will only work with torch tensors.

### tnt.utils

Torchnet provides a set of util functions which are used all over torchnet.

#### tnt.utils.table.clone(table)

This function do a deep copy of a table.

#### tnt.utils.table.merge(dst, src)  ({ dst = table -- src = table -- }) 

This function add to the destination table dest, the element contained in the source table source.

The copy is shallow.

#### tnt.utils.table.foreach(tbl, closure[, recursive])

({
tbl       = table     --
closure   = function  --
[recursive = boolean]  --  [default=false]
})


This function applies the function defined by closure to the table tbl.

#### tnt.utils.table.mergetensor(tbl)

({
tbl = table  --
})


Merge a table into a tensor in one extra dimension.

### tnt.transform

Most of the transformations are simple but can be composed or merged.

#### transform.identity(...)

The identity transform takes any input and return it as it is.

#### transform.compose(transforms)

({
transforms = table  --
})


This function takes a table of functions and composes them to return one transformation.

This function assumes that the table of transformations is indexed by contiguous ordered keys starting at 1. The transformations are composed in the ascending order.

For example, the following code:

> f = transform.compose{
[1] = function(x) return 2*x end,
[2] = function(x) return x + 10 end,
foo = function(x) return x / 2 end,
[4] = function(x) return x - x end
}
> f(3)
16

is equivalent to compose the transformations stored in [1] and [2], i.e., defining the following transformation:

> f =  function(x) return 2*x + 10 end

#### transform.merge(transforms)

({
transforms = table  --
})


This function takes a table of transformations and merge them into one transformation. Once apply to an input, this transformation will produce a table of output, containing the transformed input.

For example, the following code:

> f = transform.merge{
[1] = function(x) return 2*x end,
[2] = function(x) return x + 10 end,
foo = function(x) return x / 2 end,
[4] = function(x) return x - x end
}

produces a function which applies a set of transformations to the same input:

> f(3)
{
1 : 6
2 : 13
foo : 1.5
4 : 0
}
#### transform.tablenew()

#### transform.tableapply(transform)

({
transform = function  --
})


This function applies a transformation to a table of input. It return a table of output of the same size as the input.

For example, the following code:

> f = transform.tableapply(function(x) return 2*x end)

produces a function which multiplies any input by 2:

> f({[1] = 1, [2] = 2, foo = 3, [4] = 4})
{
1 : 2
2 : 4
foo : 6
4 : 8
}
#### transform.tablemergekeys()

This function merges tables by key. More precisely, the input must be a table of table and this function will reverse the table orderto make the keys from the nested table accessible first.

For example, if the input is:

> x = { sample1 = {input = 1, target = "a"} , sample2 = {input = 2, target = "b", flag = "hard"}

Then apply this function will produce:

> transform.tablemergekeys(x)
{
input :
{
sample1 : 1
sample2 : 2
}
target :
{
sample1 : "a"
sample2 : "b"
}
flag :
{
sample2: "hard"
}
}
#### transform.makebatch([merge])  ({ [merge = function] -- }) 

This function is used in many tnt.Dataset to format samples in the format used by the tnt.Engine.

This function first merges keys to produces a table of output. Then, transform this table into a tensor by either using a merge transformation provided by the user or by simply concatenating the table into a tensor directly.

This function uses the compose transform to apply successive transformations.

#### transform.randperm(size)

({
size = number  --
})


This function create a vector containing a permutation of the indices from 1 to size. This vector is a LongTensor and size must be a number.

Once the vector created, this function can be used to call a specific indices in it.

For example:

> p = transform.randperm(3)

creates a function p which contains a permutation of indices:

> p(1)
2
> p(2)
1
> p(3)
3
#### transform.normalize([threshold])  ({ [threshold = number] -- [default=0] }) 

This function normalizes data, i.e., it removes its mean and divide it by its standard deviation.

The input must be a Tensor.

({
self = tnt.ListDataset  --
list = tds.Hash         --
[path = string]          --
})


Considering a list (can be a tds.Hash, table or a torch.LongTensor) the i-th sample of a dataset will be returned by load(list[i]), where load() is a closure provided by the user.

If path is provided, list is assumed to be a list of string, and will each element list[i] will prefixed by path/ when fed to load().

Purpose: many low or medium-scale datasets can be seen as a list of files (for example representing input samples). For this list of file, a target can be often inferred in a simple manner.

({
self     = tnt.ListDataset  --
filename = string           --
[path     = string]          --
})


The file specified by filename is interpreted as a list of strings (one string per line). The i-th sample of a dataset will be returned by load(line[i]), where load() is a closure provided by the user an line[i] is the i-the line of filename.

If path is provided, list is assumed to be a list of string, and will each element list[i] will prefixed by path/ when fed to load().

#### tnt.TableDataset(self, data)  { self = tnt.TableDataset -- data = table -- } 

tnt.TableDataset interfaces existing data to torchnet. It is useful if you want to use torchnet on a small dataset.

The data must be contained in a tds.Hash.

tnt.TableDataset does a shallow copy of the data.

Data are loaded while constructing the tnt.TableDataset:

> a = tnt.TableDataset{data = {1,2,3}}
> print(a:size())
3

#### tnt.IndexedDataset(self, fields[, path][, maxload][, mmap][, mmapidx][, standalone])

{
self       = tnt.IndexedDataset  --
fields     = table               --
[path       = string]             --
[mmap       = boolean]            --  [default=false]
[mmapidx    = boolean]            --  [default=false]
[standalone = boolean]            --  [default=false]
}


A tnt.IndexedDataset() is a data structure built upon (possibly several) data archives containing a bunch of tensors of the same type.

See tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter and tnt.IndexedDatasetReader to see how to create and read a single archive.

Purpose: large datasets (containing a lot of files) are often not very well handled by filesystems (especially over network). tnt.IndexedDataset provides a convenient and efficient way to bundle them into a single archive file, associated with an indexed file.

If path is provided, then fields must be a Lua array (keys being numbers), where values are string representing a filename prefix to a (index,archive) pair. In other word path/field.{idx,bin} must exist. The i-th sample returned by this dataset will be a table containing each field as key, and a tensor found at the corresponding archive at index i.

If path is not provided, then fields must be a Lua hash. Each key represents sample fields and the corresponding value must be a table containing the keys idx (for the index filename path) and bin (for the archive filename path).

If provided (and positive), maxload limits the dataset size to the specified size.

Archives and/or indexes can also be memory mapped with the mmap and mmapidx flags.

If standalone is true, the constructor expects only one field to be provided. The i-th sample returned by the dataset will be the item found at the archive at index i. This is particularly useful with table archives.

##### tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter(self, indexfilename, datafilename, type)  ({ self = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter -- indexfilename = string -- datafilename = string -- type = string -- }) 

Creates a (archive,index) file pair. The archive will contain tensors of the same specified type.

type must be a string chosen in {byte, char, short, int, long, float, double or table}.

indexfilename is the full path to the index file to be created. datafilename is the full path to the data archive file to be created.

Note that you must call close() to ensure all data is written on disk and to create the index file.

The type table is special: data will be stored into a CharTensor, serialized from a Lua table object. IndexedDatasetReader will then deserialize the CharTensor into a table at read time. This allows storing heterogenous data easily into an IndexedDataset.

##### tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter(self, indexfilename, datafilename)
({
self          = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter  --
indexfilename = string                    --
datafilename  = string                    --
})


Opens an existing (archive,index) file pair for appending. The tensor type is inferred from the provided index file.

indexfilename is the full path to the index file to be opened. datafilename is the full path to the data archive file to be opened.

###### tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter.add(self, tensor)  ({ self = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter -- tensor = torch.*Tensor -- }) 

Add a tensor to the archive and record its index position. The tensor type must of the same type than the one specified at the creation of the tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter.

({
self     = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter  --
filename = string                    --
})


Convenience method which given a filename will open the corresponding file in binary mode, and reads all data in there as if it was of the type specified at the tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter construction. A corresponding tensor is then added to the archive/index pair.

(
self  = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter  --
table = table                     --
)


Convenience method only available for table type IndexedDataset. The table will be serialized into a CharTensor.

({
self = tnt.IndexedDatasetWriter  --
})

##### tnt.IndexedDatasetReader(self, indexfilename, datafilename[, mmap][, mmapidx])
({
indexfilename = string                    --
datafilename  = string                    --
[mmap          = boolean]                  --  [default=false]
[mmapidx       = boolean]                  --  [default=false]
})


indexfilename is the full path to the index file. datafilename is the full path to the archive file.

Memory mapping can be specified for both the archive and index through the optional mmap and mmapidx flags.

#### tnt.TransformDataset(self, dataset, transform[, key])

({
self      = tnt.TransformDataset  --
dataset   = tnt.Dataset           --
transform = function              --
[key       = string]               --
})


Given a closure transform(), and a dataset, tnt.TransformDataset applies the closure in an on-the-fly manner when querying a sample with tnt.Dataset:get().

If key is provided, the closure is applied to the sample field specified by key (only). The closure must return the new corresponding field value.

If key is not provided, the closure is applied on the full sample. The closure must return the new sample table.

The size of the new dataset is equal to the size of the underlying dataset.

#### tnt.TransformDataset(self, dataset, transforms)

({
self       = tnt.TransformDataset  --
dataset    = tnt.Dataset           --
transforms = table                 --
})


Given a set of closures and a dataset, tnt.TransformDataset applies these closures in an on-the-fly manner when querying a sample with tnt.Dataset:get().

Closures are provided in transforms, a Lua table, where a (key,value) pair represents a (sample field name, corresponding closure to be applied to the field name).

#### tnt.BatchDataset(self, dataset, batchsize[, perm][, merge][, policy][, filter])

({
self      = tnt.BatchDataset  --
dataset   = tnt.Dataset       --
batchsize = number            --
[perm      = function]         --  [has default value]
[merge     = function]         --
[policy    = string]           --  [default=include-last]
[filter    = function]         --  [has default value]
})


Given a dataset, tnt.BatchDataset merges samples from this dataset to form a new sample which can be interpreted as a batch (of size batchsize).

The merge function controls how the batch is performed. It is a closure taking a Lua array as input containing all occurrences (for a given batch) of a field of the sample, and returning the aggregated version of these occurrences. By default the occurrences are supposed to be tensors, and they aggregated along the first dimension.

More formally, if the i-th sample of the underlying dataset is written as:

{input=<input_i>, target=<target_i>}

assuming only two fields input and target in the sample, then merge() will be passed tables of the form:

{<input_i_1>, <input_i_2>, ... <input_i_n>}

or

{<target_i_1>, <target_i_2>, ... <target_i_n>}

with n being the batch size.

It is often important to shuffle examples while performing the batch operation. perm(idx, size) is a closure which returns the shuffled index of the sample at position idx in the underlying dataset. For convenience, the size of the underlying dataset is also passed to the closure. By default, the closure is the identity.

The underlying dataset size might or might not be always divisible by batchsize. The optional policy string specify how to handle corner cases:

• include-last makes sure all samples of the underlying dataset will be seen, batches will be of size equal or inferior to batchsize.
• skip-last will skip last examples of the underlying dataset if its size is not properly divisible. Batches will be always of size equal to batchsize.
• divisible-only will raise an error if the underlying dataset has not a size divisible by batchsize.

#### tnt.CoroutineBatchDataset(self, dataset, batchsize[, perm][, merge][, policy][, filter])

({
self      = tnt.CoroutineBatchDataset  --
dataset   = tnt.Dataset                --
batchsize = number                     --
[perm      = function]                  --  [has default value]
[merge     = function]                  --
[policy    = string]                    --  [default=include-last]
[filter    = function]                  --  [has default value]
})


Given a dataset, tnt.CoroutineBatchDataset merges samples from this dataset to form a new sample which can be interpreted as a batch (of size batchsize).

It behaves the same and has the same arguments as tnt.BatchDataset (see the documentation there for additional details), with one important distinction: it allows the underlying dataset to postpone returning the individual samples once by doing a call to coroutine.yield() (from the underlying dataset).

This is useful when using datasets that are inefficient or slow when they need to provide the required sample immediately after a call to dataset:get(). The general pattern of code in the underlying dataset:get() would be:

FooDataset.get = function(self, idx)
prepare(idx)  -- stores sample in self.__data[idx]
coroutine.yield()
return self.__data[idx]
end

#### tnt.ConcatDataset(self, datasets)

{
self     = tnt.ConcatDataset  --
datasets = table              --
}


Given a Lua array (datasets) of tnt.Dataset, concatenates them into a single dataset. The size of the new dataset is the sum of the underlying dataset sizes.

Purpose: useful to assemble different existing datasets, possibly large-scale datasets as the concatenation operation is done in an on-the-fly manner.

#### tnt.ResampleDataset(self, dataset[, sampler][, size])

Given a dataset, creates a new dataset which will (re-)sample from this underlying dataset using the provided sampler(dataset, idx) closure.

If size is provided, then the newly created dataset will have the specified size, which might be different than the underlying dataset size.

If size is not provided, then the new dataset will have the same size than the underlying one.

By default sampler(dataset, idx) is the identity, simply returning idx. dataset corresponds to the underlying dataset provided at construction, and idx may take a value between 1 to size. It must return an index in the range acceptable for the underlying dataset.

#### tnt.ShuffleDataset(self, dataset[, size][, replacement])

({
self        = tnt.ShuffleDataset  --
dataset     = tnt.Dataset         --
[size        = number]             --
[replacement = boolean]            --  [default=false]
})


tnt.ShuffleDataset is a sub-class of tnt.ResampleDataset provided for convenience.

It samples uniformly from the given dataset with, or without replacement. The chosen partition can be redrawn by calling resample().

If replacement is true, then the specified size may be larger than the underlying dataset.

If size is not provided, then the new dataset size will be equal to the underlying dataset size.

Purpose: the easiest way to shuffle a dataset!

##### tnt.ShuffleDataset.resample(self)

The permutation associated to tnt.ShuffleDataset is fixed, such that two calls to the same index will return the same sample from the underlying dataset.

#### tnt.SplitDataset(self, dataset, partitions[, initialpartition])

({
self             = tnt.SplitDataset  --
dataset          = tnt.Dataset       --
partitions       = table             --
[initialpartition = string]           --
})


Partition a given dataset, according to the specified partitions. Use the method select() to select the current partition in use.

The Lua hash table partitions is of the form (key, value) where key is a user-chosen string naming the partition, and value is a number representing the weight (as a number between 0 and 1) or the size (in number of samples) of the corresponding partition.

Partioning is achieved linearly (no shuffling). See tnt.ShuffleDataset if you want to shuffle the dataset before partitioning.

The optional variable initialpartition specifies the partition that is loaded initially.

Purpose: useful in machine learning to perform validation procedures.

##### tnt.SplitDataset.select(self, partition)
({
self      = tnt.SplitDataset  --
partition = string            --
})


Switch the current partition in use to the one specified by partition, which must be a string corresponding to one of the names provided at construction.

The current dataset size changes accordingly, as well as the samples returned by the get() method.

### Dataset Iterators

It is easy to iterate over datasets using a for loop. However, sometimes one wants to filter out samples in a on-the-fly manner or thread sample fetching.

Iterators are here for this particular cases. In general, refrain from writing iterators for handling custom cases, and write instead a tnt.Dataset

Iterators implement two methods:

• run() which returns a Lua iterator usable in a for loop.
• exec(funcname, ...) which execute a given funcname on the underlying dataset.

Typical usage is achieved with a for loop:

for sample in iterator:run() do
<do something with sample>
end

Iterators implement the __call event, so one might also use the () operator:

for sample in iterator() do
<do something with sample>
end
#### tnt.DatasetIterator(self, dataset[, perm][, filter][, transform])  ({ self = tnt.DatasetIterator -- dataset = tnt.Dataset -- [perm = function] -- [has default value] [filter = function] -- [has default value] [transform = function] -- [has default value] }) 

The default dataset iterator.

filter(sample) is a closure which returns true if the given sample should be considered or false if not.

transform(sample) is a closure which can perform online transformation of samples. It returns a modified version of the given sample. It is the identity by default. It is often more interesting to use tnt.TransformDataset for that purpose.

#### tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator(self[, init], closure, nthread[, perm][, filter][, transform][, ordered])

({
self      = tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator  --
[init      = function]                    --  [has default value]
closure   = function                     --
[perm      = function]                    --  [has default value]
[filter    = function]                    --  [has default value]
[transform = function]                    --  [has default value]
[ordered   = boolean]                     --  [default=false]
})


Allows to iterate over a dataset in a thread manner. tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator:run() guarantees that all samples will be seen, but does not guarantee the order unless ordered is set to true.

The purpose of this class is to have a zero pre-processing cost. When reading datasets on the fly from disk (not loading them fully in memory), or performing complex pre-processing this can be of interest.

The number of threads used to parallelize is specified by nthread.

init(threadid) (where threadid=1..nthread) is a closure which may initialize the specified thread as needed, if needed. It is doing nothing by default.

closure(threadid) will be called on each thread and must return a tnt.Dataset instance.

perm(idx) is a permutation used to shuffle the examples. If shuffling is needed, one can use this closure, or (better) use tnt.ShuffleDataset on the underlying dataset (returned by closure()).

filter(sample) is a closure which returns true if the given sample should be considered or false if not. Note that filter is called after fetching the data in a threaded manner.

transform(sample) is a function which maps the given sample to a new value. This transformation occurs before filtering.

When ordered is set to true the ordering of samples returned by the iterator is guaranteed. This option is particularly useful for repeatable experiments. By default ordered is false, which means that order is not guaranteed by run() (though often the ordering is similar in practice).

A common error raised by this dataset is when closure() is not serializable. Make sure that all upvalues of closure() are serializable. It is recommended to avoid upvalues at all cost, and to make sure you require all the appropriate torch packages needed to (de-)serialize closure() in the init() function.

For more information, check out the threads package, on which tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator relies.

#### tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator.execSingle(tnt.DatasetIterator, name, ...)

Execute the given method name on the dataset corresponding to the first available thread, passing it the subsequent arguments, and returns what the name method returns.

For example:

  local iterator = tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator{...}
print(iterator:execSingle("size"))

#### tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator.exec(tnt.DatasetIterator, name, ...)

Execute the given method name on the underlying datasets in each thread, passing to each of them the subsequent arguments, and returns a table of what the name method returns for each thread.

For example:

  local iterator = tnt.ParallelDatasetIterator{...}
for _, v in pairs(iterator:exec("size")) do
print(v)
end

### tnt.Engine

In experimenting with different models and datasets, the underlying training procedure is often the same. The Engine module provides the boilerplate logic necessary for the training and testing of models. This might include conducting the interaction between model (nn.Module), tnt.DatasetIterators, nn.Criterions, and tnt.Meters.

An instance engine of a tnt.Engine() implements two main methods:

• engine:train(), for training the model on data (i.e. sample data, forward prop, backward prop).
• engine:test(), for evaluating a model on data (optionally with respect to a nn.Criterion).

The Engine can be implemented for any common underlying training and testing procedure involving a model and data. It can also be designed to allow user control after certain events such as forward prop, criterion evaluation, or the end of an epoch, by using coroutines (see tnt.SGDEngine).

### tnt.SGDEngine

The SGDEngine module implements the Stochastic Gradient Descent training procedure in train, including data sampling, forward prop, back prop, and parameter updates. It also operates as a coroutine allowing a user control (i.e. increment some sort of tnt.Meter) at events such as 'start', 'start-epoch', 'forward', 'forward-criterion', 'backward', etc. The available hooks are the following:

hooks = {
['onStart']             = function() end, -- Right before training
['onStartEpoch']        = function() end, -- Before new epoch
['onSample']            = function() end, -- After getting a sample
['onForward']           = function() end, -- After model:forward
['onForwardCriterion']  = function() end, -- After criterion:forward
['onBackwardCriterion'] = function() end, -- After criterion:backward
['onBackward']          = function() end, -- After model:backward
['onUpdate']            = function() end, -- After UpdateParameters
['onEndEpoch']          = function() end, -- Right before completing epoch
['onEnd']               = function() end, -- After training
}

To specify a new closure for a given hook, we can access to it with engine.hooks.<onEvent>. For example, we could reset a Meter before every epoch by:

local engine = tnt.SGDEngine()
local meter  = tnt.AverageValueMeter()
engine.hooks.onStartEpoch = function(state)
meter:reset()
end

Accordingly, train requires a network (nn.Module), a criterion expressing the loss function (nn.Criterion), a dataset iterator (tnt.DatasetIterator), and a learning rate, at the minimum. The test function allows for simple evaluation of a model on a dataset.

A state is maintained for external access to outputs and parameters of modules as well as sampled data. The content of the state table is the following, where the passed values come from the arguments of engine:train():

state = {
['network']     = network,
['criterion']   = criterion,
['iterator']    = iterator,
['lr']          = lr,
['lrcriterion'] = lrcriterion,
['maxepoch']    = maxepoch,
['sample']      = {},
['epoch']       = 0, -- epoch done so far
['t']           = 0, -- samples seen so far
['training']    = true
}

### tnt.OptimEngine

The OptimEngine module wraps the optimization functions from https://github.com/torch/optim. At the start of training, the engine will call getParameters on the provided network.

The train method requires the following parameters in addition to the SGDEngine.train parameters:

• optimMethod the optimization function (e.g optim.sgd)
• config a table with configuration parameters for the optimizer

Example:

  local engine = tnt.OptimEngine()
engine:train{
network = model,
criterion = criterion,
iterator = iterator,
optimMethod = optim.sgd,
config = {
learningRate = 0.1,
momentum = 0.9,
},
}

### tnt.Meter

When training a model, you generally would like to measure how the model is performing. Specifically, you may want to measure the average processing time required per batch of data, the classification error or AUC of a classifier a validation set, or the precision@k of a retrieval model.

Meters provide a standardized way to measure a range of different measures, which makes it easy to measure a wide range of properties of your models.

Nearly all meters (except tnt.TimeMeter) implement three methods:

• add() which adds an observation to the meter.
• value() which returns the value of the meter, taking into account all observations.
• reset() which removes all previously added observations, resetting the meter.

The exact input arguments to the add() method vary depending on the meter. Most meters define the method as add(output, target), where output is the output produced by the model and target is the ground-truth label of the data.

The value() method is parameterless for most meters, but for measures that have a parameter (such as the k parameter in precision@k), they may take an input argument.

An example of a typical usage of a meter is as follows:

local meter = tnt.<Measure>Meter()  -- initialize meter
for state, event in tnt.<Optimization>Engine:train{
network   = network,
criterion = criterion,
iterator  = iterator,
} do
if state == 'start-epoch' then
meter:reset()  -- reset meter
elseif state == 'forward-criterion' then
elseif state == 'end-epoch' then
print('value of meter:' .. meter:value())  -- get value of meter
end
end
#### tnt.APMeter(self)  ({ self = tnt.APMeter -- }) 

The tnt.APMeter measures the average precision per class.

The tnt.APMeter is designed to operate on NxK Tensors output and target, and optionally a Nx1 Tensor weight where (1) the output contains model output scores for N examples and K classes that ought to be higher when the model is more convinced that the example should be positively labeled, and smaller when the model believes the example should be negatively labeled (for instance, the output of a sigmoid function); (2) the target contains only values 0 (for negative examples) and 1 (for positive examples); and (3) the weight ( > 0) reprsents weight for each sample.

#### tnt.AverageValueMeter(self)

({
self = tnt.AverageValueMeter  --
})


The tnt.AverageValueMeter measures and returns the average value and the standard deviation of any collection of numbers that are added to it. It is useful, for instance, to measure the average loss over a collection of examples.

The add() function expects as input a Lua number value, which is the value that needs to be added to the list of values to average. It also takes as input an optional parameter n that assigns a weight to value in the average, in order to facilitate computing weighted averages (default = 1).

#### tnt.AUCMeter(self)

({
self = tnt.AUCMeter  --
})


The tnt.AUCMeter measures the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for binary classification problems. The area under the curve (AUC) can be interpreted as the probability that, given a randomly selected positive example and a randomly selected negative example, the positive example is assigned a higher score by the classification model than the negative example.

The tnt.AUCMeter is designed to operate on one-dimensional Tensors output and target, where (1) the output contains model output scores that ought to be higher when the model is more convinced that the example should be positively labeled, and smaller when the model believes the example should be negatively labeled (for instance, the output of a signoid function); and (2) the target contains only values 0 (for negative examples) and 1 (for positive examples).

#### tnt.ConfusionMeter(self, k[, normalized])

{
self       = tnt.ConfusionMeter  --
k          = number              --
[normalized = boolean]            --  [default=false]
}


The tnt.ConfusionMeter constructs a confusion matrix for a multi-class classification problems. It does not support multi-label, multi-class problems: for such problems, please use tnt.MultiLabelConfusionMeter.

At initialization time, the k parameter that indicates the number of classes in the classification problem under consideration must be specified. Additionally, an optional parameter normalized (default = false) may be specified that determines whether or not the confusion matrix is normalized (that is, it contains percentages) or not (that is, it contains counts).

The add(output, target) method takes as input an NxK tensor output that contains the output scores obtained from the model for N examples and K classes, and a corresponding N-tensor or NxK-tensor target that provides the targets for the N examples. When target is an N-tensor, the targets are assumed to be integer values between 1 and K. When target is an NxK-tensor, the targets are assumed to be provided as one-hot vectors (that is, vectors that contain only zeros and a single one at the location of the target value to be encoded).

#### tnt.mAPMeter(self)

({
self = tnt.mAPMeter  --
})


The tnt.mAPMeter measures the mean average precision over all classes.

The tnt.mAPMeter is designed to operate on NxK Tensors output and target, and optionally a Nx1 Tensor weight where (1) the output contains model output scores for N examples and K classes that ought to be higher when the model is more convinced that the example should be positively labeled, and smaller when the model believes the example should be negatively labeled (for instance, the output of a sigmoid function); (2) the target contains only values 0 (for negative examples) and 1 (for positive examples); and (3) the weight ( > 0) reprsents weight for each sample.

#### tnt.MovingAverageValueMeter(self, windowsize)

({
self       = tnt.MovingAverageValueMeter  --
windowsize = number                       --
})


The tnt.MovingAverageValueMeter measures and returns the average value and the standard deviation of any collection of numbers that are added to it within the most recent moving average window. It is useful, for instance, to measure the average loss over a collection of examples withing the most recent window.

The add() function expects as input a Lua number value, which is the value that needs to be added to the list of values to average.

#### tnt.MultiLabelConfusionMeter(self, k[, normalized])

{
self       = tnt.MultiLabelConfusionMeter  --
k          = number                        --
[normalized = boolean]                      --  [default=true]
}


The tnt.MultiLabelConfusionMeter constructs a confusion matrix for multi- label, multi-class classification problems. In constructing the confusion matrix, the number of positive predictions is assumed to be equal to the number of positive labels in the ground-truth. Correct predictions (that is, labels in the prediction set that are also in the ground-truth set) are added to the diagonal of the confusion matrix. Incorrect predictions (that is, labels in the prediction set that are not in the ground-truth set) are equally divided over all non-predicted labels in the ground-truth set.

At initialization time, the k parameter that indicates the number of classes in the classification problem under consideration must be specified. Additionally, an optional parameter normalized (default = false) may be specified that determines whether or not the confusion matrix is normalized (that is, it contains percentages) or not (that is, it contains counts).

The add(output, target) method takes as input an NxK tensor output that contains the output scores obtained from the model for N examples and K classes, and a corresponding NxK-tensor target that provides the targets for the N examples using one-hot vectors (that is, vectors that contain only zeros and a single one at the location of the target value to be encoded).

#### tnt.ClassErrorMeter(self[, topk][, accuracy])

{
self     = tnt.ClassErrorMeter  --
[topk     = table]               --  [has default value]
[accuracy = boolean]             --  [default=false]
}


The tnt.ClassErrorMeter measures the classification error (in %) of classification models (zero-one loss). The meter can also measure the error of predicting the correct label among the top-k scoring labels (for instance, in the Imagenet competition, one generally measures classification@5 errors).

At initialization time, it takes to optional parameters: (1) a table topk that contains the values at which the classification@k errors should be measures (default = {1}); and (2) a boolean accuracy that makes the meter output accuracies instead of errors (accuracy = 1 - error).

The add(output, target) method takes as input an NxK-tensor output that contains the output scores for each of the N examples and each of the K classes, and an N-tensor target that contains the targets corresponding to each of the N examples (targets are integers between 1 and K). If only one example is added, output may also be a K-tensor and target a 1-tensor.

Please note that topk (if specified) may not contain values larger than K.

#### tnt.TimeMeter(self[, unit])

({
self = tnt.TimeMeter  --
[unit = boolean]       --  [default=false]
})


The tnt.TimeMeter is designed to measure the time between events and can be used to measure, for instance, the average processing time per batch of data. It is different from most other meters in terms of the methods it provides:

At initialization time, an optional boolean parameter unit may be provided (default = false). When set to true, the value returned by the meter will be divided by the number of times that the incUnit() method is called. This allows the user to compute, for instance, the average processing time per batch by simply calling the incUnit() method after processing a batch.

The tnt.TimeMeter provides the following methods:

• reset() resets the timer, setting the timer and unit counter to zero.
• stop() stops the timer.
• resume() resumes the timer.
• incUnit() increments the unit counter by one.
• value() returns the time passed since the last reset(); divided by the counter value when unit=true.
#### tnt.PrecisionAtKMeter(self[, topk][, dim][, online])  { self = tnt.PrecisionAtKMeter -- [topk = table] -- [has default value] [dim = number] -- [default=2] [online = boolean] -- [default=false] } 

The tnt.PrecisionAtKMeter measures the precision@k of ranking methods at pre-specified levels k. The precision@k is the percentage of the k front-ranked items according to the model that is in the list of correct (positive) targets.

At initialization time, a table topk may be given as input that specifies the levels k at which the precision@k will be measures (default = {10}). In addition, a number dim may be provided that specifies over which dimension the precision@k should be computed (default = 2), and a boolean online may be specified that indicates whether we see all inputs along dimension dim at once (default = false).

The add(output, target) method takes two inputs. In the default mode (dim=2 and online=false), the inputs mean:

• A NxC tensor that for each of the N examples (queries) contains a score indicating to what extent each of the C classes (documents) is relevant to the query, according to the model.
• A binary NxC target tensor that encodes which of the C classes (documents) are actually relevant to the the N-th input (query). For instance, a row of {0, 1, 0, 1} indicates that the example is associated with classes 2 and 4.

The result of setting dim to 1 is identical to transposing the tensors output and target in the above. The result of setting online=true is that the function assumes that it is not the number of queries N that is growing with repeated calls to add(), but the number of candidate documents C. (Use this mode in scenarios where C is large but N is small.)

The value() method returns a table that contains the precision@k (that is, the percentage of targets predicted correctly) at the cutoff levels in topk that were specified at initialization time. Alternatively, the precision@k at a specific level k can be obtained by calling value(k). Note that the level k should be an element of the table topk specified at initialization time.

#### tnt.RecallMeter(self[, threshold][, perclass])

{
self      = tnt.RecallMeter  --
[threshold = table]           --  [has default value]
[perclass  = boolean]         --  [default=false]
}


The tnt.RecallMeter measures the recall of ranking methods at pre- specified thresholds. The recall is the percentage of the correct (positive) targets that is in the list of positively labeled items according to the model.

At initialization time, the tnt.RecallMeter provides two optional parameters. The first parameter is a table threshold that contains all thresholds at which the recall is measured (default = {0.5}). Thresholds should be numbers between 0 and 1. The second parameter is a boolean perclass that makes the meter measure the recall per class when set to true (default = false). When perclass is set to false, the recall is simply averaged over all examples.

The add(output, target) method takes two inputs:

• A NxK tensor that for each of the N examples indicates the probability of the example belonging to each of the K classes, according to the model. The probabilities should sum to one over all classes; that is, the row sums of output should all be one.
• A binary NxK target tensor that encodes which of the K classes are associated with the N-th input. For instance, a row of {0, 1, 0, 1} indicates that the example is associated with classes 2 and 4.

#### tnt.PrecisionMeter(self[, threshold][, perclass])

{
self      = tnt.PrecisionMeter  --
[threshold = table]              --  [has default value]
[perclass  = boolean]            --  [default=false]
}


The tnt.PrecisionMeter measures the precision of ranking methods at pre- specified thresholds. The precision is the percentage of the positively labeled items according to the model that is in the list of correct (positive) targets.

At initialization time, the tnt.PrecisionMeter provides two optional parameters. The first parameter is a table threshold that contains all thresholds at which the precision is measured (default = {0.5}). Thresholds should be numbers between 0 and 1. The second parameter is a boolean perclass that makes the meter measure the precision per class when set to true (default = false). When perclass is set to false, the precision is simply averaged over all examples.

The add(output, target) method takes two inputs:

• A NxK tensor that for each of the N examples indicates the probability of the example belonging to each of the K classes, according to the model. The probabilities should sum to one over all classes; that is, the row sums of output should all be one.
• A binary NxK target tensor that encodes which of the K classes are associated with the N-th input. For instance, a row of {0, 1, 0, 1} indicates that the example is associated with classes 2 and 4.

#### tnt.NDCGMeter(self[, K])

{
self = tnt.NDCGMeter  --
[K    = table]         --  [has default value]
}


The tnt.NDCGMeter measures the normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG) of a ranking produced by a model at prespecified levels k, and averages the NDCG over all examples.

The discounted cumulative gain at level k is defined as:

DCG_k = rel_1 + \sum{i = 2}^k (rel_i / log_2(i))

Herein, rel_i is the relevance of item i as specified by an external rater. Defining ideal DCG (IDCG) as the best possible DCG for a given example, the NDCG at level k is defined as:

NDCG_k = DCG_k / IDCG_k

At initialization time, the meter takes as input a table K that contains all the levels k at which the NDCG is computed.

The add(output, relevance) method takes as input (1) a NxC tensor of model outputs, which scores for all C possible outputs for a batch of N examples; and (2) a NxC tensor relevance that contains the corresponding relevances for these scores, as provided by an external rater. Relevances are generally obtained from human raters.

The value() method returns a table that contains the NDCG values for all levels K that were provided at initialization time. Alternatively, the NDCG at a specific level k can be obtained by calling value(k). Note that the level k should be an element of the table K specified at initialization time.

Please note that the number of outputs and relevances C should always be at least as high as the highest NDCG level k that the meter is computing.

### tnt.Log

Log classes act as tables indexed by string keys. Allowed keys must be provided at construction. A special key __status__ can be also set the convenience method log:status() to record basic messages.

Viewers closures can be attached to a Log, and called at different events:

• onSet(log, key, value): when setting a key to the Log with log:set{}.
• onGet(log, key): when querying a key with log:get().
• onFlush(log): when flushing out the stored data of the Log with log:flush().
• onClose(log): when closing a Log with log:close().

Typical viewer closures are text or json, which allow to write to disk or to the console a subset of the keys stored by the Log, in a particular format. The special viewer closure status is made to be called on set() events, and will print out only status records.

A typical use case would be the following:

tnt = require 'torchnet'

-- require the viewers we want
logtext = require 'torchnet.log.view.text'
logstatus = require 'torchnet.log.view.status'

log = tnt.Log{
keys = {"loss", "accuracy"},
onFlush = {
-- write out all keys in "log" file
logtext{filename='log.txt', keys={"loss", "accuracy"}, format={"%10.5f", "%3.2f"}},
-- write out loss in a standalone file
logtext{filename='loss.txt', keys={"loss"}},
-- print on screen too
logtext{keys={"loss", "accuracy"}},
},
onSet = {
logstatus{filename='log.txt'},
-- print status to screen
logstatus{},
}
}

-- set values
log:set{
loss = 0.1,
accuracy = 97
}

-- write some info
log:status("hello world")

-- flush out log
log:flush()
#### tnt.Log(self, keys[, onClose][, onFlush][, onGet][, onSet])  { self = tnt.Log -- keys = table -- [onClose = table] -- [onFlush = table] -- [onGet = table] -- [onSet = table] -- } 

#### tnt.Log:status(self[, message][, time])

({
self    = tnt.Log   --
[message = string]   --
[time    = boolean]  --  [default=true]
})


#### tnt.Log:set(self, keys)

(
self = tnt.Log  --
keys = table    --
)


Set a number of keys (a subset of the keys provided at construction) to their corresponding values.

#### tnt.Log:get(self, key)

({
self = tnt.Log  --
key  = string   --
})


Get the value of a given key.

#### tnt.Log:flush(self)

({
self = tnt.Log  --
})


Flush (empty) the log data.

#### tnt.Log:close(self)

({
self = tnt.Log  --
})


Close the log.

#### tnt.Log:attach(self, event, closures)

({
self     = tnt.Log  --
event    = string   --
closures = table    --
})


Attach a set of functions (provided in a table) to a given event.

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